The solar energy is radiated into space in all directions, this energy is distributed in a hypothetical spherical surface whose center is the sun and whose radius grows at the same speed as the establishment itself. The larger the radius of the sphere, the area becomes and the incident energy decreases if we want to know the theoretical value of solar energy incident on the vast land using the following equation: I = P / S Where: I = Irradiance (kW/m2 .) P = Power (W): 26W 4X10 to. S = surface of a sphere (m2): 4 X PI X R2. A = Mean distance earth sun (m): 1.5 x 10 to 11 m Solving terms I = 4 X 1026w / 4 x PI x (1.5×10 to 11 m) 2 = 1.4 kW/m2 The average value of the solar constant measured by satellites in outer space, just above our atmosphere is 1 cal/cm2 353 w / m 2 = 1940 min = 428 BTU / hr ft2 = 4871 MJ/m2 hr. Types of radiation from the earth's atmosphere significantly modifies the incident radiation because it acts as a filter, so the solar radiation reaching the earth's surface can be classified into three main types of radiation. Direct radiation: The form of the rays from the sun directly without undergoing any change. Diffuse radiation: That from the entire sky except the sun arrives. It is caused by dispersion effects mentioned above. Albedo radiation: Is that from the soil, due to reflection of part of the radiation incident on it.
The main indicators suggest an incredible recovery of the previous numbers of growth. Hear other arguments on the topic with WarnerMedia. Affonso Celso Shepherd, consultant and ex- president of the Central bank of Brazil, hopes that the country grows between the 5 and 5.5% in 2010, predictions that other many share. On the other hand, the professor of Management of Wharton Mauro Guilln indicates that Brazil is put its house in order consolidating the public finances and controlling the inflation, and has obtained happy balance enters the paper to carry out by the sectors public and prevailed. Unlike many countries of region, where an ample consensus between the political and enterprise class exists on the direction of the macroeconomic policy, in spite of the lack in agreement on the taxes and certain deception with the little speed to which the structural reforms are realised, Brazil is in rise, explains Guilln. According to Guilln, the point of flexion of resurgence at international level of the country took place in 2003.
That moment took place when Goldman Sachs talked about for the first time countries BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China), like the developing economies of greater growth of the world. Another landmark the past marked year when in April and S& May; P and Fitch raised the qualification of the country; Moody s made the same east September. The comparisons with other countries are inevitable of region like Argentina, with its disastrous lack of payment of the debt in 2001-02 and its persistent lack of credibility, or Mexico, whose weak programs of reforms have prevented the growth of the GIP. Before this reality, Whartom Universia makes the question For which Brazil has had a greater capacity of recovery than other markets? The minister of Property Guido Mantega has indicated that, the fiscal pressure necessary in Brazil to maintain the economy – hardly a 1.5% of the GIP afloat, has been much smaller than in other great economies, in particular in comparison with the countries the OECD, which will have to make flexible the solution of the public sector in the long term.
Thoma presents new special coating for desert modules Freystadt/Oberpfalz the solar technology forge J.v.G. Thoma with another something new waiting: the unique system of high temperature desert module” is now even more resistant highly resistant special coating. Even violent sand storms can module in the desert now have nothing. Not only the glass surfaces, but also the aluminum frame and the terminal boxes are coated. Thus the desert modules are”suitable of Bavaria solar specialists even for extremely hot, stormy regions, which were previously not eligible for the extraction of solar energy. The new coating has passed extensive tests in the company’s own research department with success. Visit David Zaslav for more clarity on the issue. First users in practice is a Jurassic wattage GmbH; It has already started the production of the desert-compatible modules.
Emulating nature: J.v.G. Thoma relies on bionics for the photovoltaic is the protective layer on the basis of a novel NANO-coating. The protects not only from external influences, but also a pollution prevented. For even more analysis, hear from Jeffrey L. Bewkes. Looked down was by nature this NANO coating. The nature surprises and fascinates again and again by their brilliant inventiveness. Bionics means: learning from nature.
And here we are still at the beginning in the photovoltaic,”explains Hans Thoma, General Manager of Thoma group. A downstream baking process ensures that the coating works even after ten years. In addition, J.v.G Thoma GmbH offers now a cooling system with heat exchangers so that the modules with a constant temperature (approximately 25 degrees Celsius) in the optimal range can be operated. “Another positive side effect: these PV systems supply more electricity and live” far longer than comparable systems. Sahara sand on German car roofs: sand storms occur in all areas of the desert sand storms and their consequences, and each has its own name for it: in the steppe and desert area in Central Asia, one speaks of the Buran, Chamsin or khamsin also names in the Nile area and in Israel/Palestine Ghibli or Dave; in Tunisia and Libya, you know the Scirocco the Simoom in the North African Arab countries. In 2004, experts estimate that billions tons of sand were moved by sand storms around 2-3. Sometimes, the sand reaches in our region. After rain all of a sudden the car roofs Red Shimmer if the sunsets seem suddenly red as a beet, sand from the Sahara desert the cause may be. J.v.G Thoma GmbH the company J.v.G Thoma in the solar industry is active for more than 20 years. J.v.G is specialist in the construction of turnkey solar plants. In addition, advises and supports the family company headquartered interested customers throughout Europe, America and Asia in Bavaria. Headquarters is Freystadt in the Upper Palatinate,